A la découverte de Amadou Hampaté Ba

Né au Mali en 1901, décédé en 1991, Amadou Hampâté Bâ a traversé le XX° siècle en témoin de son temps, porteur des valeurs traditionnelles de l'Afrique et annonciateur de celles à venir. Il s'est fait connaître avant tout comme le défenseur de la " tradition orale ". Peul du Mali, il s'est mis tout enfant à l'écoute des traditionalistes, des sages qui fréquentent la cour de sa famille. Il y apprend contes et maximes, qui sous-tendent la bonne éducation et le code de conduite transmis aux jeunes générations. Epopées, récits historiques, généalogies, formant la riche littérature orale africaine, lui enseignent l'histoire de sociétés, où fondateurs d'empire et héros, conquêtes, victoires ou défaites témoignent d'une histoire ancienne, ayant connu apogées, déchirements, alliances et remaniements... Il reçoit également une éducation musulmane totalement intégrée à sa société. Ayant vécu en milieu bambara, il en connaît également la langue et la tradition. Conscient que cette immense mémoire se perd, Amadou Hampâté Bâ n'aura de cesse d'écrire tout ce qu'il entend, tout ce qu'il recueille, que ce soit à l'Institut fondamental d'Afrique noire (IFAN) de Dakar, où Théodore Monod l'appelle, où à l'Unesco où il lance son célèbre appel : " En Afrique, quand un vieillard meurt, c'est une bibliothèque qui brûle ". Ses premiers écrits sont des " récits " ou " contes initiatiques peuls " - Koumen, Kaidara -, ainsi que des ouvrages de réflexion sur les civilisations, les traditions ou religions africaines. Avec L'étrange destin de Wangrin, il crée une œuvre originale : il fait le portrait d'un interprète bambara roué et ambitieux, qui utilise son intelligence pour tromper les représentants de l'administration coloniale et ceux qui les servent. De son abondante production littéraire et philosophique se détachent particulièrement les deux ouvrages de ses Mémoires : Amkoullel, l'enfant peul et Oui mon commandant ! Enfin, homme de son temps, Amadou Hampâté Bâ n'a cessé de prôner un humanisme fait de tolérance entre les êtres humains quelle qu'en soit la race ou la religion. II l'exprime dans sa lettre à la jeunesse en une image magnifique : " De même que la beauté d'un tapis tient à la variété de ses couleurs, la diversité des hommes, des cultures et des civilisations fait la beauté et la richesse du monde ". Cet ouvrage constitue des mélanges dédiés à la mémoire de l'écrivain et penseur malien, à la suite du colloque organisé à l'Université de Bamako, en 2001, à l'occasion du centenaire de sa naissance

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